China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
目的 研究美国FDA食品召回现状，为我国开展相应工作提供可借鉴的经验。方法 从FDA官方网站收集2019年食品召回信息，对数据进行筛选、整理，用EXCEL 2013进行数据分析。结果 从2019年FDA发布的每周执法报告中收集到的有效数据涉及461起召回事件和1734种次召回食品。约60%的召回属于II级，I级大约1/3，III级最少。召回食品中，奶类最多，共310种次，占17.88%。召回原因中，微生物污染召回食品最多，占37.89%，召回事件31.45%。未标明过敏原导致的召回事件最多，占35.01%，但召回食品仅为18.40%。过程不当召回事件仅为3.47%，召回食品却高达24.63%。99%以上的事件和食品是企业自主召回，只有4起FDA强制召回。结论 美国食品召回体系运行高效。FDA统一发布召回信息，方便公众查询与参与。过程不当召回事件少但召回量大，充分显示了生产过程监管的高效性。企业具有很强的安全责任意识，绝大多数召回由企业主动实施。我国的食品安全管理和召回工作，要进一步落实信息发布和交流，提高公众的参与度；努力转变终产品监管模式，发挥过程监管的作用；完善监督管理机制，努力提高企业的食品安全责任意识。
Objectives To study the implementation of food recalls managed by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and explore experiences for the food recalling in our country. Methods Food recalling information was collected from FDA website. The information was analyzed by EXCEL 2013. Results Information including 461 recall events and 1734 types of food were obtained from the weekly enforcement reports in 2019. Sixty percent of the recalls were class II. About one third of recalls were class I. Milk products were the most frequently recalled food, consisting of 17.88% of the total recalling food. Microbiology contamination was the main recall reason, resulting in 31.45% of recall events and 37.89% of recall food types. Not notifying allergen was responsible for 35.01% of the recall events, the highest proportion among the reasons. The proportion of recall food types caused by not notifying allergen is only 18.40%. Inappropriate proceeding resulted in 3.47% of recall events and 24.63% of recall food types, respectively. More than 99% of the recalls were carried voluntarily by food firms except 4 mandatory recalls by FDA. Conclusions Food recall is implemented efficiently in America. FDA publishes food recall information and makes it easily obtainable to public. Manufacture process monitoring is a high efficiency food safety managing measure. Food firms have strong conscientiousness to recall defective food voluntarily. It’s important to promote the participation of the public, transfer the traditional end-product managing model, and cultivate the conscientiousness of the firms for the implementation of food recall in our country.