2018年全国食物中毒事件流行特征分析
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(1.四川省成都市疾病预防控制中心,四川 成都 610041;2.中国疾病预防控制中心现场 流行病学培训项目,北京 100050;3.中国疾病预防控制中心卫生应急中心,北京 102206;4.湖北省武汉市疾病预防控制中心,湖北 武汉 430014)

作者简介:

刘辉 男 副主任医师 研究方向为卫生应急管理 E-mail:413470376@qq.com

通讯作者:

王锐 女 副研究员 研究方向为卫生应急管理 E-mail:wangrui@chinacdc.cn

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Epidemic characteristics analysis for food poisoning events in China, 2018
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(1.Chengdu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Sichuan Chengdu 610041, China;2.China Filed Epidemiology Training Program, Beijing 100050, China;3.Public Health Emergency Center, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China;4.Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hubei Wuhan 430014, China)

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    摘要:

    目的 了解2018年我国食物中毒事件,探讨食物中毒事件的发生规律及特点。方法 对2018年突发公共卫生事件报告管理信息系统报告的全国食物中毒事件进行描述性分析。结果 2018年全国共报告食物中毒事件291起,累计报告病例7 856例,死亡98例。细菌性食物中毒事件数和中毒人数分别占总体的36.77%(107/291)和63.11%(4 958/7 856),致病因素主要为沙门菌、副溶血性弧菌、致泻大肠埃希菌、金黄色葡萄球菌及肠毒素等。毒蕈中毒的死亡人数占总体的31.63%(31/98)。5~9月是我国食物中毒事件的高发月份。发生在家庭的食物中毒事件数和死亡人数分别占总体的36.43%(106/291)和86.73%(85/98),病死率为6.84%(85/1 243);发生在集体食堂的食物中毒人数占总体的44.04%(3 460/7 856)。细菌性食物中毒事件数、发生在学校集体食堂的事件数分别占学校食物中毒事件总数的50.67%(38/75)和80.00%(60/75)。果蔬类及其制品、真菌类食品和肉类及其制品引起的食物中毒事件数分别占总体的18.90%(55/291)、14.09%(41/291)和10.65%(31/291),居食物中毒致病食品种类前三位。与2017年比较,2018年我国食物中毒事件数和死亡人数减少,主要原因是夏秋季真菌性食物中毒事件大幅减少;而中毒人数有所增加是由于夏秋季发生在集体食堂和饮食服务单位的细菌性食物中毒人数明显增加。植物性食物中毒的主要致病因素为乌头和四季豆,事件发生高峰在秋冬季。动物性食物中毒事件中,应高度重视食用圆尾鲎引起的中毒。结论 建议各地在食物中毒的高发时段提前加强监督、检查和指导,及时发布预警。做好集体单位食堂、饮食服务单位、农村自办家宴等重点场所的食品安全监管和指导工作。提高医务人员对罕见毒物中毒的诊断、救治和现场处置能力。有针对性地开展多种形式的健康教育,普及预防各类食物中毒的知识,倡导良好的个人卫生和饮食卫生习惯,减少食物中毒事件的发生。

    Abstract:

    Objective To study the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning events in China, so as to provide scientific basis for early warning, prevention and control. Methods Descriptive study on the food poisoning data in 2018 collected from National Report Management Information System of Public Health Emergencies. Results Totally 291 food poisoning events were reported in 2018, which caused 7 856 cases and 98 deaths. The numbers of events and cases of bacterial food poisoning account for 36.77%(107/291) and 63.11%(4 958/7 856) of the total respectively. Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin were the main pathogenic factors. Mushroom poisoning accounted for 31.63%(31/98) of deaths. Food poisoning events occurred mainly from May to September. Food poisoning occurred in family accounted for 36.43%(106/291) of the total number of events and 86.73%(85/98) of the total number of deaths, as well as the highest fatality rate(6.84%,85/1 243). Food poisoning occurred in canteens accounted for 44.04%(3 460/7 856) of the total number of cases. Bacterial food poisoning events accounted for 50.67%(38/75) of the total number of events occurred in schools, and school canteens were the most frequent places where the events occurred in schools (80.00%,60/75). Fruits, vegetables and their products, poisonous mushrooms and meat products were the top 3 food types that caused food poisoning, accounted for 18.90%(55/291), 14.09%(41/291) and 10.65%(31/291) of the total number of events separately. Compared with 2017, the events and deaths of food poisoning in China decreased in 2018 due to the significant reduction of fungal food poisoning events, while the cases increased because of the significant increasing cases of bacterial food poisoning occurred in canteens and catering service units. The main pathogenic factors of vegetative food poisoning were aconitum and kidney bean, with a high incidence in autumn and winter. More attention should be paid to the poisoning caused by the consumption of Tachypleus rotundus. Conclusion Supervision, inspection and guidance should be strengthened in advance during the high incidence period of food poisoning, and early warning should be issued in time. Food safety supervision and guidance should also be conducted conscientiously in places such as canteens of collective units, catering service units, and rural self-organized family banquets. The abilities of early diagnosis, treatment and on-site disposal for rare toxicant poisoning in medical staff need to improve. Various forms of health education should be carried out to popularize the knowledge of food poisoning prevention, advocate good hygiene habits and reduce the occurrence of food poisoning.

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刘辉,任婧寰,伍雅婷,王霄晔,王锐.2018年全国食物中毒事件流行特征分析[J].中国食品卫生杂志,2021,33(1):114-117.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-11-13
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-04-06