王慧,毛伟峰,蒋定国,李建文,刘飒娜,刘兆平,刘思洁,张磊.中国居民水产品中四种常见重金属暴露评估[J].中国食品卫生杂志,2019,31(5):470-475. 本文二维码信息
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中国居民水产品中四种常见重金属暴露评估
Risk assessment of specific heavy metals exposure to aquatic products in China
投稿时间:2019-08-08  
DOI:
中文关键词:  重金属  水产品  暴露限值  暴露评估
Key Words:Heavy metal  aquatic products  margin of exposure  exposure assessment
基金项目:食品污染物定量风险表征技术与综合应用研究(2018YFC1603104)
作者单位E-mail
王慧 国家食品安全风险评估中心,北京 100022
吉林省疾病预防控制中心,吉林 长春 130062 
wanghui5288@126.com,zhanglei@cfsa.net.cn 
毛伟峰 国家食品安全风险评估中心,北京 100022  
蒋定国 国家食品安全风险评估中心,北京 100022  
李建文 国家食品安全风险评估中心,北京 100022  
刘飒娜 国家食品安全风险评估中心,北京 100022  
刘兆平 国家食品安全风险评估中心,北京 100022  
刘思洁 吉林省疾病预防控制中心,吉林 长春 130062  
张磊 国家食品安全风险评估中心,北京 100022 wanghui5288@126.com,zhanglei@cfsa.net.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 评估中国居民水产品中铅、镉、汞、砷四种重金属的暴露水平和健康风险。方法 利用2013—2017年水产品中铅、镉、汞、砷的含量监测数据和相应食物消费量数据,采用简单分布评估方法,计算中国居民水产品中四种重金属的摄入情况,依据相应健康指导值或基准剂量评估其潜在危险。结果 各性别-年龄组人群镉、甲基汞的暴露量均低于其相应健康指导值,但除66岁以上女性组镉平均暴露量外,平均暴露量均在相应健康指导值的5%以上,高端暴露量(P95)超过健康指导值的20%。各人群铅、无机砷的暴露限值(MOE)均高于1。2~6岁性别-年龄组除无机砷外,另三种重金属平均暴露量和P95在各性别-年龄组中均最高。水产品中四种重金属贡献率最高的为海蟹和鱼类。结论 中国居民通过水产品的铅、镉、汞、砷暴露量总体上低于相应的健康指导值或基准剂量,但达到通过制定限量标准进行管理的水平。鱼类和海蟹是对四种重金属暴露贡献率最高的水产品,高消费人群的重金属暴露需要加以关注,建议进一步开展重金属的累积暴露评估研究,明确水产品中重金属的累积暴露风险。
Abstract:
      Objective To assess of the exposure risk and the potential health hazards of four heavy metals in aquatic products in Chinese residents. Methods Based on the concentration data of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead collected in 2013-2017 and the food consumption data in China, the dietary exposures of the four heavy metals were estimated by semi-probabilistic model. The health guidance value or bench mark dose (BMD) was adopted to assess the potential health risks of the heavy metals. Results The exposures of Cd and CH3Hg in the general population were lower than the corresponding health guidance value,except for the average cadmium exposure in women over 66 years of age. The Cd and CH3Hg average exposure was more than 5% of the corresponding health guidance value, and the high-end exposure (P95) was more than 20% of that. Meanwhile the margin of exposure (MOE) for Pb and iAs were higher than 1. The average consumer exposure and high exposure (P95) of the four heavy metals in 2-6 years old group were the highest among all age groups in the whole population except the exposure to iAs. Sea crab and fish were the main sources of the dietary exposure contribution of the four heavy metals in aquatic products. Conclusion The exposures to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic through aquatic products were at a relatively safe level, but it reached the level of management through the establishment of limit standards. Fish and sea crab were the main sources of the dietary exposure contribution of the four heavy metals in aquatic products.The heavy metal exposure of high-consuming population needs to be paid attention to. It was suggested that further studies on cumulative exposure assessment of heavy metals be carried out to clarify the cumulative exposure risk of heavy metals in aquatic products.
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